Genetic characterization of centennial olive trees from northern Chile: the case of extra virgin olive oil from Huasco in the process of designation of origin
Roberto Contreras 1*, Fernanda Aguayo1, Alexi Guerra1, Francisco Tapia2, Vincenzo Porcile1
The olive variety called Sevillana de Azapa and Sevillana del Huasco was introduced in northern Chile more than 350 years ago by the Spaniards. These olive trees are evidence of an important historical production of olives in the Valleys of Azapa and Huasco. However, the genetic differences of this variety in populations of each valley and between olive trees commonly cultivated in Chile are still unknown. In order to obtain Denomination of Origin (DO) certification for the olive products made from this variety, a more accurate quality control method is required to properly distinguish raw material. Based on the use of ISSR and RAPD markers, the results of this study showed that Sevillana has a high genetic variation within each valley, but also a very low diversity between valleys. The high genetic variation within the population suggests that the individuals originated from vegetative parts of different mother plants, or were propagated by seeds. On the other hand, the populations of centennial trees of the Huasco and Azapa valleys are genetically distinct from the most important olive varieties marketed in the rest of Chile. It can be concluded the ISSR and RAPD markers can be used to characterize the raw material of Huasco olive oil with DO so as to differentiate this oil from other varieties established in the rest of the country.
Key words: RAPD, ISSR, DNA molecular markers, Azapa and Huasco Valleys, olive oil, designation of origin.
1 Centro de Investigación para el Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama (CRIDESAT), Universidad de Atacama, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapó-Chile.
2 Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Centro Regional de Investigación Intihuasi, Colina San Joaquín s/n, Apartado Postal 36 B, La Serena, Chile.
* Corresponding autor E-mail: [email protected]