TOXIC EFFECT OF PERUVIAN ELDERBERRY, Sambucus peruviana (CAPRIFOLIACEAE), ON Daphnia magna, Sitophilus zeamais, AND Copidosoma koehleri IN PERU
Amid Román-Farje1, José Iannacone1, 2*, y Lorena Alvariño1
Some extracts of plants with insecticidal properties are used on pest control as an alternative to synthetic agrochemicals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of Peruvian elderberry, Sambucus peruviana Kuhnt (Caprifoliaceae), on the water flea Daphnia magna Straus, the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Col.: Curculionidae), and the microhymenopteran Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Hym.: Encyrtidae). Plant leaves, bark, and roots were treated by maceration in water, boiling, infusion and maceration in ethyl alcohol. The insecticidal activity of root and bark powders against Sitophilus zeamais was also evaluated. The highest repellent activity against D. magna was observed with the use of leaf infusion. Adults of C. koehleri were more sensitive to root infusion. Adult emergence of this parasitoid decreased with leaves macerated in water. Larvae and pupae did not emerge with leaf treatments by maceration and boiling. Higher levels of repellency were observed with leaves and roots treated by maceration in ethyl alcohol. Bark powder caused mortality of S. zeamais. Bark treated by maceration, boiling, and as an infusion also had effects on the percentage of damaged grains, resulting in a < 3% weight loss. It can be concluded that unlike S. peruviana leaves and roots, both powder and boiled bark have insecticidal and repellent effects against S. zeamais…
Key words: Insecticidal effect, plant insecticide, repellent effect, stored grain.
1 Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal (LEBA), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática (FCNNM), Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (UNFV), El Agustino, Lima, Perú.
2 Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Ricardo Palma (URP), Santiago de Surco, Lima, Perú
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